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Monday, April 29, 2019

Factors That Influence Children Development


  • Trust Vs Mistrust
The basic theme of infancy is the development of trust.This come about when children's need for food,warmth,sleep and nurturing are met consistently and predictably. This stage revolves around  the importance of feeding.The helpless infant rely solely on the care of adult for their satisfaction of needs.When children are not cared for adequately, they develop a sense of mistrust in others and in themselves, and they grow to see the world as threatening, unpredictable and hostile.

  • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Toddlers begin to assert their growing motor language and cognitive ability by trying to be more independent .In as much as they are still very dependent and must reach a balance between reliance and caregivers and the desire to try new things .Success in this stage makes children to feel good about their own abilities. If children are made to feel ashamed of their effort,they will develop a sense of self doubt in early childhood programs, children need to be allowed to exercise their growing independence within the safety of a loving and supportive environment that does not withdraw bodily cuddle Just because the toddler is mobile.

  • Initiative vs. Guilt
Children are full of curiosity and desire to try new activities alone as well as cooperatively with peers.Children enjoy imitating adult as a way of learning about and incorporating adult roles and expectations. Children also acquire understanding of male and female roles through the subtle expectations of the parent of opposite sex.If children are denied the freedom to explore and satisfy their curiosity and try  new ventures,they will develop a sense of guilt and failure.It is important to allow children to initiate and try out a variety of experiences and activities through which children can learn the rules and expectations of society.

  • Industry Vs Inferiority
As children grow into puberty, they begin to focus on the development of competence. They like to plan,carry out and complete project. Unlike younger preschoolers who are more concerned with the exploratory process of their activities. Children who do not develop an adequate sense of industry will settle for mediocrity and do less than they are able,with a resulting sense of industry inferiority. Older preschoolers and school age children should be allowed time ,space, materials and support to engage in the kind of activities that build a sense of industry.

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