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Saturday, August 24, 2019

Pre-teenage Development

     
                MIDDLE CHILDHOOD (6 to12 years)
     

Physical Development
   

  • Growth becomes slow and steady
  • Muscles develop, and " baby fat' is lost
  • Gross motor skills ( biking , swimming, skating , ball handling) continue to improve
Cognitive Development


  • Children apply logical operations to problems
  • Understanding of conservation (that changes in shape do not necessarily affect quantity and transformation , that objects can go through many states without changing) emerge.
  • Children can"decenter" take multiple perspectives into account.
  • Memory encoding, storage, and retrieval  improve and control strategies (metamemory) develop.
  • Language pragmatics (social conventions) and metalinguistic awareness (self mentoring) improve.
 Social/Personality Development


  • Children refer to psychological traits to define themselves. Sense of self become differentiated.
  • Social comparison is used to understand one's standing and identity .
  • Self esteem grows and sense of self efficacy (an appraisal of what one can and cannot do) develop. 
  • Children approach moral problems with intent to maintaining social respect and accepting what Society difines  as right.
  • Friendship patterns of boys and girl differs.Boys mostly interact with boys in groups ,and girls tend to interact in pairs with other girls.           

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